A 407 came third in class at the 1000 Lakes Rally in 1957

Moskvich 407 - 61

Moskvitch (Russian: Москвич) (sometimes also written as

Moskvich, Moskvič or Moskwitsch) was an automobile

brand from Russia produced by AZLK from 1945 to 1991

and by OAO Moskvitch from 1991 to 2002. The current

article incorporates information about both the brand and

the joint-stock successor of AZLK for the sake of


OAO   Moskvitch   was   a   privatized   venture   name   given   to   the   former   factory   in   order   to   avoid   legal issues   after   the   fall   of   the   Soviet   Union   in   1991.   Since   the   factory   had   no   assembly   branches outside   Russia   after   1991,   its   name   is   largely   used   today   to   refer   to   the   building   located   in Lower Eastern part of Moscow and abandoned since 2006. The   word   moskvitch   (Russian:   москвич)   itself   translates   as   "(a)   Muscovite"   into   English.   It   was used to point out the original location of the cars manufactured outside of Moscow.

Models 402/403/407

The   Moskvitch   402   is   a   small   family   car   manufactured   by   the   former   Soviet   maker   MZMA,   first time   introduced   in   1956   as   a   second   generation   of   the   Moskvitch#Generations   series.   Unlike   its predecessor,   which   was   based   on   the   Opel   Kadett,   the   402   featured   many   improvements   such   as four doors and a standard car radio. With   designers   taking   inspiration   from   the   contemporary   Hillman   Minx,   FIAT   1100,   Ford   Consul, and   Jowett   Javelin(with   the   Consul   being   their   ultimate   model)   the   Moskvitch   402   utilized   35   hp (26   kW;   35   PS)   1,222   cc   (74.6   cu   in)   inline   4-cylinder   flathead   engine   (derived   from   the   1,074   cc (65.5   cu   in)   of   its   predecessors).   The   top   speed   was   88–90   kilometres   per   hour   (55–56   mph),   no more   than   a   slight   increase   over   the   401   series   (mostly   due   to   considerable   reductions   in   body weight);   it   could   achieve   9   L/100   km   (26   mpg-US;   31   mpg-imp)   It   was   not   until   1958   that   the engine   was   replaced   with   MZMA's   OHV   development   (among   other   changes)   which   allowed   to obtain   a   maximum   speed   increase   up   to   115   kilometres   per   hour   (71   mph)   and   a   much   less   noisy drive.   At   4,055   mm   (159.6   in)   overall,   it   was200   mm   (7.9   in)   longer   than   the   401.   Though   the gearchange   had   moved   to   the   steering   column,   the   gearbox   was   the   same   three-speed   manual. Electrics   changed   from   six   volt   to   twelve   (a   change   already   being   made   in   the   U.S.).   Radio, cigarette   lighter,   and   demister   were   standard,   at   a   time   when   the   demister   was   not   in   the   UK, and when the radio still was not in the U.S. The   estate   (402-423)   appeared   in   1957,   with   folding   rear   seats   and   a   250   kg   (550   lb)   payload. (Proposed three-door and sedan delivery models were not produced.) Exported   to   several   Western   countries,   the   402   in   Norway   had   an   advantage   over   the   Ford Anglia or Prefect, being both more available and less subject to import duty. Limited   production   of   four-wheel   drive   variants   of   the   402   (the   410   saloon)   was   built   in   1957-8, using   transfer   case   and   axles   of   the   GAZ-69   and   Pobeda   steering.   Its   performance   was   good: ground   clearance   was   the   same   as   the   GAZ-69's,   220   mm   (8.7   in);   it   could   cross   water   300   mm (12 in) deep; climb a 33° slope; and reach 56 kilometres per hour (35 mph). The   final   Moskvitch   402   was   produced   in   July   1957;   there   were   94,080   in   all   (including   18,019 for export). With   the   new   407-series   45   hp   (34   kW;   46   PS)   1,358   cc   (82.9   cu   in)   overhead   valve   engine,   in 1958,   the   402   became   the   Moskvitch   407. A   four-speed   transmission   with   synchromesh   appeared in December 1959, in place of the three-speed. The   407   was   offered   as   an   estate   (407-423N),   delivery   (407-430),   medical   team   model   (407B), and   taxi   (407T). The   delivery   simply   had   the   rear   windows   of   the   estate   not   cut   out   and   the   rear doors welded shut; it was only available to official groups. A 407 came third in class at the 1000 Lakes Rally in 1957. Like   the   402,   there   were   four-wheel   drive   407s,   too,   beginning   with   the   407-410N   in   June   1958 and   the   407-411N   estate   in   August.   At   first,   these   had   the   three-speed,   changing   to   the   four- speed   in   1960. A   total   of   11,890   four-wheel   drive   402s   and   407s   were   built   by   end   of   production in    January    1961,    a    result    of    Moskvitch    being    unable    to    keep    with    with    demand    for    its mainstream 407s. In   1961,   the   407   was   further   upgraded   with   an   even   more   powerful   M-407D1-D2   engine   (allowing to    handle    the    fourth    speed    on    a    manual    transmission),    self-adjusting    brake    cylinders    and hydraulic    clutch    drive,    improved    front    suspension    for    easier    driving,    and    a    completely restructured   dashboard.   This   model,   manufactured   as   the   Moskvitch   403,   served   as   a   transition between    the    second    and    the    third    generation    Moskvitches,    debuting    in    1964,    with    the mechanical   components   of   the   Moskvitch   408   (which   had   not   yet   appeared)   and   the   body   of   a 402.   The   403E   and   403IE   were   for   export.   In   1963,   an   estate   variant,   the   424,   appeared   (with the   424E   the   export   model).   The   403   lasted   only   until   July   1965,   with   133,523   built   (50,612   for export). The   402   was   discontinued   by   August   1959,   with   407   production   ending   in   October   1963   (with 359,980 built, 120,903 for export). The   407   was   the   first   Soviet   automotive   export   to   be   truly   successful   in   the   West.   Up   to   half   of all   407   production   was   exported   for   a   number   of   years,   mainly   to   the   Eastern   Bloc   countries, Norway,   Finland,   and   France.   In   parts   of   Western   Europe,   it   was   rebranded   the   Elite,   to   avoid conflict with Peugeot, which had trademarked names with middle "0"s. The   Moskvitch   402   and   407   could   be   considered   as   the   first   step   in   USSR/Russia's   automotive history   towards   producing   customer-adapted   trim   levels   for   various   uses.   While   the   407   provided greater   driving   comfort   at   bigger   expenses,   other   trim   levels   included   the   407-424   station   wagon available   for   the   general   public,   431   delivery   pick-up/ambulance   van   and   even   the   410/411 attempt of creating an SUV-based sedan/station wagon.

Early history

In   1929   the   construction   of   Moscow   Automotive   Plant   began   with   initial   production   of   24,000 vehicles.   In   1941   the   plant   was   evacuated   to   Ural   and   the   entire   production   converted   for   the manufacture   of   the   military   equipment   at   the   dawn   of   World   War   II.   After   the   war,   the   USSR acquired   an   entire   Opel   manufacturing   line   from   Brandenburg   in   Germany.   A   factory   called MZMA   (Moskovsky   Zavod   Malolitrazhnykh   Avtomobiley,   that   is,   Moscow   Compact   Car   Factory) started   in   1947   to   manufacture   an   automobile   called   Moskvitch   400   based   on   the   Opel   Kadett. Further   models   were   developed   by   Soviet   engineers.   In   1969,   the   factory   changed   name   to AZLK (Avtomobilny   Zavod   imeni   Leninskogo   Komsomola,   which   means   Car   Factory   in   the   name   of   the Leninist Communist Youth Union). The Moskvitch failed to get type approval in the UK. Moskvitch   cars   were   never   meant   to   be   a   fashion   statement[citation   needed].   They   were   sturdy, reliable   on   substandard   roads   and   were   offered   at   an   affordable   price.   The   1960s   and   early 1970s   were   the   glory   days,   when   the   cars   were   exported   to   many   countries   throughout   the world.   Demand   always   exceeded   production,   so   people   had   to   wait   a   long   time   for   a   new   car. Until   the   1980s   all   Moskvitch   cars   were   compact   rear-wheel   drive   saloons   and   estates   with   solid rear axles suspended by leaf springs. The   Moskvitch   was   also   produced   in   Bulgaria   (see   Moskvitch   (Bulgaria))   between   1966   and   1990 on   the   basis   of   complete   knock   down   (CKD)   kits.   Models   408,   408I,   412,   21412   "Aleko"   total   of 304,297 cars

Introduction of the Aleko

1986   saw   the   unveiling   of   a   radically   new   (by   Soviet   standards)   model,   known   as   the Aleko-2141. It   was   powered   by   the   1.5L   UZAM   used   in   412   model   and   VAZ-2106   1.6L   in-line   four-cylinder engines,   which   had   by   then   amassed   an   acceptable   track   record   powering   a   number   of   LADA models.   Aleko   was   a   front-wheel   drive   hatchback   different   from   any   model   the   factory   had made   previously.   It   was   larger   and   more   luxurious,   made   with   comfort,   safety   and   aerodynamics in   mind. The   body   was   built   on   the   basis   of   Simca   1307,   while   longitudinal   engine   placement   and torsion-crank   rear   suspension   and   McPherson   strut   front   suspension   was   inspired   by   Audi   80/100 family,   while   taking   into   account   the   larger   size   of   the   Moskvitch   and   Lada   engines   .   The   1.8 liter   gasoline   engine   for   the   new   car   was   planned,   but   never   materialized,   as   was   also   the   case with   a   diesel   version.   The   car   was   a   major   improvement   over   previous   generations,   but   the   fall of   the   centralised   economy,   below-par   quality   and   inadequate   management   ultimately   brought the factory to bankruptcy. The   factory,   which   had   been   renamed   to   OAO   Moskvitch   (Moskvitch   Joint   Stock   Company)   in   the early   1990s,   filed   for   bankruptcy   in   2002   and   ceased   production.   The   factory   remains   idle   and abandoned,   everything   left   as   it   was   in   2002.   Unfinished   bodyshells   remain   on   the   production line   in   various   stages   of   completion,   while   furniture,   computers,   office   supplies,   and   documents remain   in   the   plant's   administration   building.   Several   attempts   to   restart   production   have   been made over the next 3 years, but none were successful. Recently,   a   portion   of   the   abandoned   plant   was   acquired   by   OAO   Avtoframos,   a   38%-62%   joint venture   between   the   City   of   Moscow   and   French   automaker   Renault   SA.   In   2005,   Avtoframos commenced   assembly   of   Renault   Logan   sedans   from   imported   complete   knock-down   kits   (CKDs). The   presence   of   Avtoframos   brought   new   life   to   a   small   part   of   the   facility,   but   the   majority   of the    sprawling    plant    remains    abandoned,    apparently    still    owned    by    the    dormant    Moskvitch company. The   bankruptcy   of   OAO   Moskvitch   was   officially   announced   in   2006   and   the   company   was liquidated the following year. Since   2009   owner   of   brand   Moskvitch   is   German   automotive   company   Volkswagen.   In   2011 Volkswagen extended its brand ownership rights until 2021.


Engine 1358 cc 4 cylinders Power 45 HP Top speed 125 km/h Lenght/width 4,05 m/1,54 m Weight 980 kg The collections 407 is in full driving condition. Seen also with newlywed on the back seat.
Photos mainly by Matti Kreivilä. Historical facts and technical details of the vehicles provided by Wikipedia. Movies YouTube.